Schizophrenia: Why it happens, Causes, Symptoms and its Effects

Schizophrenia: Why it happens, Causes, Symptoms and its Effects

The word Schizophrenia is derived from the Greek words skhizo meaning split and phren meaning mind. This word was discovered in 1908 by  the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler.

Definition

Schizophrenia is a condition of mental disorder characterized by a disturbance in thinking emotions. It affects the ability of a person to think clearly, behave properly, feel. Schizophrenia generally leads to social withdrawal.

For example: A person who is hungry will eat while a schizophrenic will have completely opposite thoughts at a same time he will think he is hungry and should eat and at a same time will think how to eat? I am so full.

A schizophrenic gets this completely opposite thoughts at a same time. This is the reason schizophrenia leads to social withdrawal.

Epidemiology

It is the most common disease of all psychiatrist disorders. It has been estimated that almost 50% of all mental hospital beds are occupied by schizophrenic’s. Schizophrenia is equally prevalent in both men and women. The peak ages of onset are 15-25 years for men and 25-35 years for women.

schizophrenia disorder
Source: Pcori

Causes:

  1. Increases Dopamine activity.
  2. Lack of development in prefrontal cortex and limbic cortex of brain.
  3. Consanguinity is also one of causes of Schizophrenia. Studies shows that relatives of schizophrenics have higher chance of developing disease than general population.
  4. Due to perinatal risks like maternal influenza, birth during late winter or early spring.
  5. Family relationships. More pampered or neglected children of a family have higher hit ratio of Schizophrenia.
  6. Higher Stress level.
  7. Previous Drug use.

Symptoms

Positive symptoms

  • Delusions: Believing what is not true. People with schizophrenia suffer thorough delusions in which they form delusions even though it has evidence against it they still believe in the false things.
  • Hallucinations: Seeing, feeling, hearing that was not actually present.
  • Excitement or agitation: Schizophrenic’s experience a range of shaken emotions in which they feel different things at the same time.
  • Hostility or aggressive behaviour : People with schizophrenia generally have these strong feelings against someone/something in which they also become extremely aggressive towards them. This is harmful for himself as well as people in surrounding.
  • Suspiciousness : Schizophrenic’s have this feeling often that people are plotting against them and they become very suspicious.
  • Possible suicidal tendencies: These Schizophrenic’s try to harm themselves because they are not able to cope up with society as the ultimate result of schizophrenia is social withdrawal, so they sometimes try suicidal activities.

Negative Symptoms

  • Affective flattening or blunting
  • Avolitionapathy (lack of initatiative)
  • Attention impairment
  • Anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure)
  • Alodia (lack of speech output)

Classification

classification of schizophrenia
  1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: In this type a person undergoes through delusions like delusions of persecution, jealousy, reference, grandiosity. He also hear hallucinatory voices that threaten or command him or auditory hallucinations without verbal firm like whistling, humming and laughing.
  2. Hebephrenic (Disorganized) Schizophrenia: It is associated with poor premorbid personality. The essential features include thought disorder, incoherence, extreme social impairment. It also includes odd behaviour traits like senseless giggling, mirror gazing,  mannerisms and so on.
  3. Catatonic Schizophrenia: It is characterized by disturbance of motor behaviour which includes agitation, violent behaviour, aggressiveness, frank incoherence etc.
  4. Residual Schizophrenia: This includes symptoms od residue like emotional blunting, social withdrawal, loosening of associations. This happens when a person has suffered of Schizophrenia in past without showing any symptoms in present.
  5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia : This is diagnosed when features of no type are fully present or features of more than one type are present.
  6. Simple Schizophrenia: It is characterized by progression course, negative symptoms self-adsorbed idleness and aimless activity.
  7. Post- schizophrenic Depression: presence of active features or residual features of Schizophrenia.

Conclusion

In this article we learned about Schizophrenia, its causes, symptoms and types. We learned that family relationships or social circle can also lead to Schizophrenia. A person having stress and undergoing depression due to any reasons have very high probability of getting Schizophrenia. A more loved or pampered person also have high chance of getting Schizophrenia. So, i would like to conclude this article by asking everyone of you to behave nicely with all . We should not be the reason of somebody’s depression. And parents should also maintain a balance of love by not completely neglecting their child as i have seen some parents neglecting their child because they are mentally unfit In such case the disease becomes more severe and not completely pampering child because these are also causes of Schizophrenia. Consanguinity should also be avoided as it also one of the cause of Schizophrenia so consanguineous marriage should be avoided as their children have high chances of getting schizophrenia. We  may not be capable of treating Schizophrenic’s but our nice behaviour can surely make it less painful for them.

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